ON THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE ANCIENT IRISH PEOPLE.
A series of lectures delivered by the late Eugene O’Curry M.R.I.A.,
Professor of Irish History and Archaeology in the Catholic University of Ireland;
Corresponding member of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland etc.
W. K. Sullivan, Ph. D.
INTRODUCTION TO THE WEB EDITION.
EUGENE O’CURRY. (Eoghan Ó Comhraidhe)
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Eugene O’Curry was born in Dunaha, Carrigaholt in 1794. He was the third son of Eugene Mór O’Curry, a small farmer and Catherine Madigan. Although he received little, if any, formal education, his father was known to have a substantial interest in old Irish Literature and had a collection of early Irish manuscripts, which, presumably, formed the basis for the family’s education in the reading of these scripts and in music and song. The language of the district at the time of his youth was Irish and Eugene is believed to have learned English when about 16 years of age. He worked, in his youth, at farming and at school teaching – probably as a hedge-school master, being paid by paltry contributions from his students, and possibly also at smuggling ( a trade that was very much diminished by the introduction of the Coast Guard in the early 1820’s). In 1822 Eugene moved to Limerick – a relatively short boat journey - and worked as a labourer on various infrastructural projects. About 1824 he married Anne Broughton, whose sister, by coincidence, or otherwise, was to marry John O Donovan, in 1840, (O’Donovan was, in later years O’Curry’s partner in scholarship). After his marriage he owned a small shop which developed into a sheebeen, but business must not have been successful for he found himself in the debtors prison. Through the good offices of his mother-in-law, he secured employment in the Limerick Mental Hospital, and release from prison.
Eugene spent seven years working in the Mental Hospital during which time he developed links with other scholars interested in Irish literature and history and indeed contributed is own share to Irish poetry. In 1835 he was invited to join the Topographical Department of the Ordnance Survey, who were working on the first detailed (six inch scale) map of Ireland. He moved his lodgings to Dublin.
His work with the Ordnance Survey, which continued until 1842, would have involved familiarisation with ancient Irish Manuscripts, in search of topographic information and during this time he supplemented his income by working for the Royal Irish Academy transcribing similar manuscripts and also was engaged in cataloguing the R.I.A. Ms. Collection. The encyclopaedic knowledge of Ancient Irish literature, which he gained from this work was broadened further when, in 1849, he travelled to London to give evidence before the Select Committee on Public Libraries and took the opportunity, while there to examine such Irish Manuscripts as he could find in London. He stayed in London long enough to catalogue the manuscript collection of the British Museum (Library).
In 1854 O’Curry was appointed to the Chair of Irish History and Archaeology in the newly established Catholic University of Ireland. In This capacity he produced, first a series of twenty one lectures on the Manuscript Materials of Ancient Irish History. He then started work ‘On The Manners and Customs Of The Ancient Irish’ the first of which was delivered on 26th May 1857 and the last on the 15th July 1862.
Eugene O Curry died, suddenly on 30th July 1862 and was buried in Glasnevin cemetery.
ON THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE ANCIENT IRISH.
W. K. O Sullivan, who was appointed editor of this series of lectures says in his introduction:
“…… they [The Catholic University of Ireland] purchased, after the death of O’Curry, his glossaries and manuscripts. One object which the University had in purchasing O’Curry’s manuscripts was to obtain possession of the lectures now published, with a view to having them printed……….. “
In the course of this editorial work, O’Sullivan found that:
“The manuscript, of the Lectures as written out for delivery, contained no references to the pages of the Codices from which O'Curry drew his materials, and in some instances the Codex itself was not even named; and, with the exception of some of the shorter ones given in the first ten or twelve Lectures, he had not copied out the Irish text of the passages of which he gave translations.”
“As the printing progressed, the necessity of supplying references to manuscripts, and the Irish text of the passages translated in the body of the Lectures, impressed itself more and more on my mind, so that at length I determined to make the attempt. This, as the reader will find, has been done in Volume III., and a table is now added at the beginning of Volume II, supplying the references for, the passagesquoted from Irish manuscripts in that volume.”
O’Sullivan, therefore set out to supply the ‘missing’ Irish texts and these are supplied, for Vol 3, as footnotes to O’Curry’s original work. References to the original sources, only, are supplied for Vol 2 and this list is supplied at the end of the lectures for that Volume.
O’Sullivan also wrote an Introduction to O’Curry’s work which runs to a full 644 pages – the actual lectures take 800 pages, including the footnotes and chapter summaries.
And O’Sullivan, further says
“I thought it due to O'Curry's memory to givehis own words, except in one or two instances, where he gave rather an abstract than a translation.”
The final presentation of O’Sullivan’s work was in three volumes, as follows:
Volume 1: A Preface by O’Sullivan (from which the above quotes are taken) of 18 pages and an Introduction, by O’Sullivan of 644 pages.
Volume 2: O’Curry’s Lectures 1 to 18
Volume 3 : O’Curry’s Lectures 19 to 38 and the following appendices by O’Sullivan:
a.) The Fight of Ferdiad and Cuchlaind, an episode from the Táin Bó Cuailgne.
b.) Two Old Law Tracts on The Classes of Society and their Privileges among the Ancient Irish.
c.) The Crith-Gabhlach.
d.)A Law Tract without Title on the Classes of Society.
e.)The Ancient Fair of Carman.
f.) Glossarial Index of Irish Words.
g.) Index Nominum.
h.) Index Locorum.
i.) General Index.
In 1996 a facsimile reprint of the original was published by Edmond Burke Publisher [ISBN 0 946130205 0 946130205] with a new introduction ‘Eugene O’Curry – His Life and Work’ by Nollaig Ó Murraíle, Queens University, Belfast and Extracts from ‘Review of Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish – from Athenaeum No. 2413 (24th January 1874) 120-2 and 2414 (31 January 1874) 155-6’. Also a list of ‘Revelant Books and Articles’.
THE ON-LINE EDITION.
I have attempted to reproduce only O’Curry’s lectures as edited by O’Sullivan and published in 1873. The only alterations I have consciously made, are to correct a small number of typographical errors in the original.
I have not attempted to correct the obvious inconsistencies in the spelling of some Irish names, such as Táin Bó Cuailgné, which appears in a variety of forms.
The footnotes have been converted to Roman script rather than the Gaelic script of the original i.e. aspiration of letters is replaced with the letter ‘h’.
Some of the footnotes, having been written by O’Sullivan, refer to his own Introduction (Vol. 1). These notes have been left in place, even though Vol. 1 has not been reproduced on-line.
The on-line work has been scanned, converted, proof-read and where necessary, retyped by Donal De Barra.
Donal De Barra
On The Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish.
In order to read the full text of the lectures listed below it is necessary to become a member of OaC
A Series of Lectures delivered by Eugene O'Curry M.R.I.A.
OF THE CIVILIZATION OF THE PEOPLE OF ANCIENT ERINN.
INTRODUCTION. The subject of the former course. Subject of the present course :—The Social Life, Manners, and Civilization of the people of ancient Erinn. Of the existence of a definite system of Civilization in Erinn at an early period. The Milesian monarchy; Amergin, son of Milidh (or Milesius), a Judge and a Poet. Of Professors of Music and Poetry among the early Milesians. Of the working of gold mines by Tighearnmas, B. C. 915. Of the introduction at the same time of ornamental drinking cups, and of coloured dresses. Of the law of Eochaidh Edgudhach as to colours in Dress. Silver Shields introduced by Enna Aighnech ; Chains of gold, by Muinemon. The first Ogham inscriptions by Cetcuimnigh, A. M. 3941. Of 011amh Fodhla. Antiquity of the Feis of Tara. Of the three Ferceirtnes. Of the name of the province of Connacht. Of the Feis of Tara. Of the institution of a military organization by 011amh Fodhla. Keting's description of the Feast of Tara. Of the Kingdom of Oirghialla (or Oriel). Of the Dal Araidhe. Description of Cormac MacArt at the Feast of Tara. Keting's authorities. Traditions of the bringing of the law of Moses from Egypt. The Profession of Poet-Judges deprived of their privileges, temp. Concobar MacNessa. Account of the more remarkable of the early Judges of Erinn, from the Senchus Mór.
(I.) LEGISLATION ; (continued).— Of the existence of a regular system of Laws in Erinn before the time of St. Patrick. Of the revision of the Laws, temp. St. Patrick. The Law of Adamnan. Of the Seanchas Mór: Criminal Law Code; Law of Contracts; Law of Ranks in Society; Military Laws; Laws as to the Land ; various Special Laws. Law of Eric (or composition for murder) introduced with Christianity. Of the mode of Legislation, in the passing of new laws. Of the Meill Bretha, (temp. Conn). Of local Legislation by the several Tribes. Mode of making the Nos Tuaithé, or Local Law. Of the Twelve Books of Laws of West Munster (A.D. 690). Of some Laws not passed in assembly ;—e. g. the Cain Domhnaigh, or Law of Sunday.
(II.) SYSTEM OF CLASSES OF SOCIETY. Of the division of Classes of society in ancient Erinn. Of the Fláith, or noble. Of the Ceilé, or tenant. Of the Four Classes of Bo-Airech. Of the Seven Classes of Flaith. Of the Fair of Carmán (Wexford); ancient accounts of the Legislative Assembly of the Kingdom of Leinster held there.
(III) EDUCATION, AND LITERATURE. Of Education in Erinn in the early ages. Schools of the Fileadh, or Poets. Account of some of the more distinguished men of learning in the early ages in Erinn. Of the Historians of the Tuatha Dé Danann. Of the Historians and Poets of the Milesians Of the ancient Genealogical Poem by Finn, father of Concobar Abhradh-Ruadh, (Monarch, B.C. 6.). Of Adhna, chief Poet of Concobar MacNessa. Of a very ancient Gaedhelic Grammar. Of literary offices connected with the Courts of the early monarchs. State of learning in the time of Concobar MacNessa. Of the "Pot of Avarice" of the Fileadh. List of eminent men of learning (continued). Poems of King Oilioll Olaim. Poems of King Art " the Solitary". Foundation of a University by Cormac MacAirt, in the third century. Of the Book of O'Duvegan. Of the literary education of Finn Mac Cumhaill. Of Torna Eigeas; and of learning temp. Niall. Of the presence of King Corc at Tara, at the time of the revision of the Seanchas Mór. Of the Succession of the Kings of Munster.
(III.) EDUCATION, AND LITERATURE; (continued). Of Laidcenn the Poet. Popular belief in the power of a Poet's Satire. Of Finnchaomh,, Poet of King Dathi. Torna Eigeas' Poem on Roilig na Righ. Of the Poets of the Court of King Laeghairé, (temp. St. Patrick). Druids of King Laeghairé. Of the cultivation of the Gaedhelic language in the early ages of the Church in Erinn. Of the early Gaedhelic writers after the introduction of Christianity ;—Bishop Fiacc, etc. The Ecclesiastical Schools of the early period not exclusively ecclesiastical. Of secular National Schools in the early Christian ages in Erinn. Of the Feis of Drom Ceat (A.D. 590);—revision there of the National system of Education. Of the Chief Poet Dallan Forgaill. Of Laws concerning the Profession of Teaching. Of the nature of the lay instruction in the early Christian Schools. Origin of " Sizars", or “Poor Scholars". Story of St. Adamnan and King Finnachta. Early Edu¬cation of St. Colum Cillé. Students' Hut-Encampments. Of the foreign students at Armagh; (temp. Bede.) Of Secular Education in Ancient Erinn. Of Finntain the Poet, and Cathal the son of King Ragallach, (A.D. 645). Of the qualification of a Fer-Leighin, or Head Master of a Public School. Of the Professors in a Public School or College. List of early Ecclesiastics distinguished as Men of Letters. Of the Poet Seanchan Torpeist (A.D. 600). Story of Seanchan and King Guairé Legendary account of Seanchan's recovery of the heroic Tale of the Tain Bo Chuailgné.
(III.)—EDUCATION AND LITERATURE; (continued). Poems of Colman O'Cluasaigh, (vii. century). The "Liber Hymnorum". Of Cennfaeladh "the Learned". Of the School or College under St. Bricin, (vii century). Of Ruman, "the Virgil of the Gaedhil". Of Aengus Ceilé De Of Fothadh " na Carmine". Of Flannagan, son of Ceallach, (ix. century). Story of the lady Blanaid, and Ferceirtné the bard of Curoi Mac Dairé. Of Maelmuiré of Fathan. Of the poetess Laitheog. Of Flann Mac Lonain. Topographical poem by Mac Liag. Poems by Mac Lonain. Of Cormac Mac Cullinan. Of learning in the X. and XI. centuries. Of Dallan Mac More Of Cormac "an Eigeas". Of Cinaedh O'Hartagan. Of Cormac "Fili". Of Eochaidh O'Flinn. Of Eochaidh Eolach ("the learned") O'Ceirin.
(III.) EDUCATION, AND LITERATURE ; (continued). Of Mac Liag, and his works [circa A.D. 1000]. The History of the "Wars of the Danes". Life of Brian Boromha; by Mac Liag. Poems by Mac Liag. Of Poems of this writer not described by O'Reilly. Of the history of Carn Conaill. Of Mac Coisé and his Poems. Of a prose piece by Mac Coise. Of the Tale of the "Plunder of the Castle of Maelmilscothach".
(III.) EDUCATION, AND LITERATURE; (continued). The Profession of Learning in ancient Erinn established by law. Professors sometimes employed as rulers, or ministers of state. Of Cuan O'Lothchain; (ob. A.D. 1024). Descent of the O'Lothchains from Cormac Gaileng. Of the Poems of Cuan O'Lothchain. Of the Legend of the origin of the name of the river Sinann Shannon). The Eo Feasa ("Salmon of Knowledge",)— alluded to by Mac Liag; and by Aengus Finn O'Daly. Legend of the "Seven Streams of the Fountain of Connla". Of the History of Druim Criaich, (temp Eoch¬aidh Feidhlech, circa B. C. 100). Of the History of the Cath Atha Comair. Of the history of Nial "of the Nine Hostages". Of the origin of the Fair of Tailtén. Poems of Flann Mainistrech. Of the origin of the Palace of Aileach. Of the Poem on Aileach by Cuaradh, (x. century).
(III.) EDUCATION, AND LITERATURE; (continued). Of the Poems of Flann Mainistrech (continued). Of the History of Aedh Slainé, (Monarch, vi. century). Of some Poems of Giolla-Brighdé Mac Conmidhé (xiii. century), attributed by O'Reilly to Flann. Of a Poem by Eoghan Ruadh Mac an Bhaird (or Ward), attributed by O'Reilly to Flann. Of Flann's Poem on the Pedigree of the Saints of Erinn. History anciently taught in verse. Of Flann and his descendants. Of general education in Erinn in early times. Continued cultivation of the Gaedhelic, after the introduction of Latin. Of the system of Academic Education in early times. The ancient Academic or University course. Of the legal relations between Teacher and Pupil. Teachers often employed as Ministers of State by their former pupils ; Fothaidh "na Canoiné". The Profession of Teaching not confined to the clergy in early Christian times. Maelsuthain O’Carroll, Teacher and afterwards Secretary of Brian Boromha.
(IV.) OF DRUIDS AND DRUIDISM in ancient Erinn. Vague statements as to Druids and Druidism in the Encyclopaedias. Account of the British Druids in Rees's Cyclopaedia. Rowland's account of the Druids of Anglesey. Nothing precise known of the Druids in Britain. Druidism originated in the East. Of the origin of Druids in Erinn, according to our ancient writings. Of the Druids of Parthalon; of the Nemidians, and the Fomorians; etc. Explanation of the name of Mona; (the Isle of Anglesey). Of Druidism among the Tuatha Dé Danann; — among the Firbolgs; - among the Milesians. Instance of Druidism on the occasion of the landing of the Milesians. The Incantation of Amergin. References to Druidism in ancient Irish writings;—the Dinnseanchas (on the names of Midhe and Uisnech). Druidical fire. Of the story of King Eochaidh Airemh, and Queen Edain (circa B. c. 100). The Irish Druid's wand of Divination made of the Yew, not Oak. Use of Ogam writing by the Druids. Of the story of Cuchulainn and the lady Eithne (circa A. D. 1). Of the Sidhe or Aes Sidhe,— now called "Fairies". Of the story of Lughaidh Reo-derg. Of the school of Cathbadh, the celebrated Druid of king Conchobar Mac Nessa. The Druids Teachers in ancient Erinn
(IV.) DRUIDS, AND DRUIDISM; (continued). Of Druidical Charms. Of the Dlui Fulla, or "Fluttering Wisp",--(B cC 600). Story of Prince Comgan, (VII. century). Story of the Princess Eithné Uathach, and the Deisi; and of the Druid Dill. Of the Imbas Forosnai; or "Illumination" by the Palms of the Hands. Of the Teinm Laeghda; or "Illumination" of Rhymes, of the Fileadh; and of the Dichetal do Chennaibh. Story of Finn Mac Cumhaill and Lomna the jester. Story of Mogh Eimhe, (the lap-dog). Story of the Siege of Drom Damhghairé;— Druidic Fire. Of the use of the Roan- (or Rowan-) tree, in Druidical rites;— in the ordeal by Fire. Of ancient Poetical Satire, as a branch of Druidism. Of the Glann Dichinn; or "Satire from the Hill Tops". The Glann Dichinn (or Satire) of the Poet Neidhé,— (from Cormac's Glossary). Story of the Druid Lughaidh Delbaeth (or "the Fire-Producer"), son of Cas. No instance of Human Sacrifices at any time in Erinn. One instance, at least, among the Druids of Britain; (recorded by Nennius). Of Divination by interpretation of Dreams and Omens, in ancient Erinn. Of Auguries from Birds;— the Raven; — the Wren. Of Augury from the Stars and Clouds, by night. Recapitulation
(V.) WEAPONS OF WARFARE. Scope of the present lectures. The earliest positive descriptions of Weapons, in Irish History. The first settlers. The colony of Parthalon. The colony of Nemidh. The Tuatha Dé Da¬nann and Firbolg colonies. The first battle of Magh Tuireadh; (B.C. 1272). Of the arms of Sreng, the champion of the Firbolgs. The Craisech; or "thick-handled spear". Hurling-match between the armies of the Tuatha Dé Danann and the Firbolgs. Of the construction of the arms used at the Battle of Magh Tuireadh. The Manáis; or "trowel'-shaped spear. The Fiarlann; or "curved blade". Difference between the arms of the early Tuatha Dé Danann and Firbolgs. Of the arms of the Firbolgs ;— the Craisech;— the Fiarlann. Different shapes of ancient Sword-blades. The Iron- mounted Club, or Mace, of the Firbolgs, (the Long-Iarainn.) Of the arms of the Tuatha Dé Danann ; (Tale of the Battle of Magh Tuireadh na b-Fomhorach.) The Spear of the Tuatha DéDanann. Of Nuadha of the Silver Arm. Of the Three great Artificers of the Tuatha De Dunann. Of the Forge of Goibniu.
(V.) WEAPONS of WARFARE; (continued). Of the manufacture and repair of arms by the Tuatha Dé Danann. No mention made of any weapon except Swords and Spears, with a single exception only, in the Tale of the Cath Muighe Tuireadh. Of the Sling-Stone of Lugh, and the death of "Balór of the Evil Eye". Sling-Stones of composition manufacture. Of the Tathlum. Of the Caer-Clis; (a missive ball). Of the Caer-Com¬raic; (a composition ball of several colours). Use of Armour at the Battle of Magh Tuireadh. Of the inscribed Sword of Tethra. References to charmed weapons. The weapons of the Firbolgs and Tuatha Dé Danann. Weapons of the Milesians. Of the "broad green" Spear of the Gauls, in¬troduced by Labhraidh Loingsech, (B.C. 307.) The "Gailleans", at the Táin Bo Chuailgné. Of the arms used in the time of Eochaidh Feidhlech, (B.C. 123.) The Battle of Ath Comair ;—description of the arms used there, and among others of the "Champion's Hand-Stone", (the Lia Lamha Laich.) The stone weapon unmeaningly called a "Celt". Unfounded classification of M. Worsaae and other Northern Antiquaries; their theory of the "Stone, the Bronze, and the Iron Periods". Sir R. Griffiths and Mr. J. M. Kemble, as to the arms found at Keelogue Ford. Of the Flint "Arrow-Heads" (so called), found in Ireland. Bows and Arrows not al¬luded to in any of our ancient Historic Tracts.
(V.) WEAPONS OF WARFARE; (continued). Of the arms used at the Battle of Aenach Tuaighi, B.C. 160; temp. Congal Cláiringnech, (Monarch, B.C. 161). Of the use of "Round Stones" in battle. Story of Congal Cláringnech. Use of the " Champion's Hand-Stone" by Fergus Mac Roigh. Of the use of stone missiles in general. Use of the" Champion's Hand-Stone" at the Siege of Drom Damhghaire, (A.D. 270.) Use of it by Find Mac Cumhaill. Description of the form of his Hand-Stone. Story of Prince Eochaidh, son of Enna Cennselach (circa A.D. 400); and of the death of Niall "of the Nine Hostages" by an Arrow, A.D. 405. Of the Sling, and Sling-Stone, in ancient Erinn. The Caer Chlis, or Sling-Stone, at the Second Battle of Magh Tuir¬eadh. Of the story of Duibh-linn. Death of queen Medbh, by a Sling-Stone. Shape of the Sling-Stone. Use of Sling-balls of Iron, and Bronze. Use of the Sling by Cuchulainn. Of the Taball. Of the Crann-Tabhaill. Of the Deil-Clis. Of the Tailm.
(V.) WEAPONS OF WARFARE; (continued). Recapitulation of names of Weapons anciently in use in Erinn. Descriptions of Arms and of Costume in the Tale of the Táin Bó Chuailgne: Story of the Táin. Description of the Herald, Mac Roth. Description of the Champion, Fergus Mac Róigh. Of the Cletiné, or Little Spear, of Cuchulainn. Description of the "Armed Chariot" of Cuchulainn; and of the Charioteer, Laegh. Description of the several combats, with various different weapons, between Cuchulainn and Ferdiaidh. Of the "Gae-Bulga", of Cuchulainn.
(V.) WEAPONS OF WARFARE; (continued). Examples of Weapons used in the Táin Bo Chuailgné ;—the Iron Spear of Cethern;— "Double-bladed" Spears; —the antiquated arms of Iliac ;—etc. Shields with sharp rims; "Missive Shields". Story of the death of Soaltainn, father of Cuchulainn. Example of a Two-Handed Sword. Of the incribed Sword of Cuchulainn. of the Gai Buaifneach, (or "Venomed Spear"), of Cormac. Of the Shields used in ancient Erinn. The Shield of Corb Mac Ciarain. Early references to Shields. Of the use of the Compasses in engraving devices on Shields. Of the Shield of Aedh Oirghialla. The Sciath. The Shield-strap (Nasc), and Shield, of Mac Con. List of celebrated Shields, in the Book of Leinster.
(V.) WEAPONS or WARFARE; (continued). Continued use of the same Wea¬pons down to the IX century. Of the Burial of Eoghan Bel, with his "Red Spear". Story of St. Ciaran and Prince Diarmait. A Spear of Honour, one of the emblems of royalty;—account of the cursing of Tara, by St. Ruadan. Story referring to the Sword of Crimhthann, and the Shield of Enna, as cele¬brated weapons. Allusions to Iron and Bronze weapons, in a verse of Dubh¬thach, Chief Poet of King Laeghaire; (temp. S. Patrick.) Of the Battle of Dunbolg; (A.D. 594) ;—instance of a combat on horseback by Bran Dubh. Weapons used at the Battle of Magh Rath; (A.D. 634). The "Short Spears" (Gearr) of Congal, and of Conall. Account of the Military array of King Raghallach, (circa A.D. 640 ; from an ancient poem. No change in weapons to the time of the Danish invasions, (A.D. 820). Weapons used at the Battle of Clontarf; (A.D. 1014). Account of the Battle, in the "Cogadh Gall re, Gaoidhealib";—"loricas" of the Danes;— descriptions of arms, etc., from this History. Use of the Lochlann, or foreign Battle-Axe. "Straight-backed Swords", of the Dalcassians. Use of Two Swords, (one in each hand), by Murchadh, at the Battle of Clontarf. Account of the Death of Brian; and of the stand of Donnchadh against the Ossorians, at Baile-atha-Aoi.
(VI.) MILITARY EDUCATION. Keting's account of the Fianna Eireann. O'Flaherty's allusion to a Military School under Cormac Mac Airt. Ancient System of Fosterage explained. Education of boys and girls in ancient Erinn. First Historical allusion to a Military Teacher, in the account of the Battle of Móin Trogaidhé; (B.C. 3000). Of Trogaidhé Of Cimbaeth, (A.M. 4480); the head of the champions of the "Royal Branch". In¬stances of the system of Fosterage, under Eochaidh Beg. The Champions of the "Royal Branch". Of the "Gamannrians"; and the Clanna Deagh¬aidh. Accounts of Cuchulainn, in the Tale of the Táin Bo Chuailgné Of the Early Education of Cuchulainn; (his boyish feats). Early training of young warriors at this time. Of the later Education in arms of Cuchulainn, (in Alba,— Scotland). List of the "Feats of Championship", learned by Cuchulainn, in the School of Scathach.
(VI.) MILITARY EDUCATION; continued. Instances of distinguished cham-pions acting as the military Tutors of young champions. The system of fosterage, which continued, more or less, down to A.D. 1600, represented the ancient custom of military education. No reliable authority for a cen¬tral military organization until the time of Conn "of the Hundred Battles"; probability however of the existence of-such an organization. Origin of the name Fianna. Mention made in the "Book of Navan" of the organiza¬tion of a military force by Cormac Mac Airt. Mention made of a large barrack at Tara in poems of Cinaedh O'Hartagan and Cuan O'Lothchain. Dr. Keting's account of the Fianna Eireann. List of Feinnian officers given in the Yellow Book of Lecain. Account of the battle of Cnamhros in which the Fianna under Finn Mac Cumhaill were engaged. Destruction of the Fianna at the battle of Gabhra, A.D., 284. Instances of the employment of a regular army in Erinn after the time of the battle of Gabhra